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In buried organisms where cosmic radiation cannot penetrate, the life of carbon-14 cannot exceed 60,000 - 100,000 years. Heating of the ocean, animals, forest fires and burning of organic matter release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which may or may not be taken up by living organisms and cause both fossils and living organisms to appear much older in carbon-14 tests than they are.Atomic explosions alter the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere.
One of these rocks that returned to earth is now claimed to have come from Mars.
As a rule, carbon dates are younger than calendar dates: a bone carbon-dated to 10,000 years is around 11,000 years old, and 20,000 carbon years roughly equates to 24,000 calendar years.
The problem, says Bronk Ramsey, is that tree rings provide a direct record that only goes as far back as about 14,000 years.
Marine records, such as corals, have been used to push farther back in time, but these are less robust because levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere and the ocean are not identical and tend shift with changes in ocean circulation.
Bronk Ramsey’s team aimed to fill this gap by using sediment from bed of Lake Suigetsu, west of Tokyo.
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It is against the law to teach this in public schools, but is not against the US Constitution, that specifically guarantees all US citizens, including teachers, the right of freedom of religion.