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In the general theory, neither "matter" nor "form", but only the composite, is a substance.
In the case of man, though the " soul " be proved a reality capable of separate existence, the "body" can in no sense be called a substance in its own right.
It exists only as determined by a form; and if that form is not a human soul, then the "body" is not a human body.
Many of the Franciscan doctors seem, by inference if not explicitly, to lean to the Platonic Augustinian view; Scotus, who, however, by the subtlety of his "formal distinction a parte rei ", saves the unity of the individual while admitting the forma corporeitatis; his opponent John Peter Olivi's "mode of union" of soul and body was condemned at the Council of Vienne (1311-12).Though strictly speaking self-contradictory, the phrase expresses in a convenient form the abiding reciprocity of relation between these two "principles of substantial being". In Greek and in modern philosophy, as well as during the Patristic and Scholastic periods, another celebrated theory laid claim to pre-eminence. It is in a non-natural state of union, and longs to be freed from its bodily prison (cf. Plato has recourse to a theory of a triple soul to explain the union—a theory that would seem to make personality altogether impossible (see MATTER). Augustine, following him (except as to the triple-soul theory) makes the "body" and " soul " two substances; and man "a rational soul using a mortal and earthly body" (De Moribus, I, xxvii).Man is an individual, a single substance resultant from the determination of matter by a human form. But he is careful to note that by union with the body it constitutes the human being. Augustine's psychological doctrine was current in the Middle Ages up to the time and during the perfecting of the Thomistic synthesis. As further instances of Augustinian influence may be cited Alanus ab Insulis (but the soul is united by a spiritus physicus to the body); Alexander of Hales (union ad modum formæ cum materia ); St.By these texts the special creation of man is established, his high dignity and his spiritual nature.As to his material part, the Scripture declares that it is formed by God from the "slime of the earth".